Unlike cotton, nettles grow easily without pesticides. During the middle ages, monks supposedly flagellated themselves with nettle for penance. Formerly, more species were recognised than are now accepted. Seeds contain much more fatty acid than leaves.[54]. Stinging plant § Plants with stinging hairs, "Identifying plant fibre textiles from Norwegian Merovingian Period and Viking Age graves: The Late Iron Age Collection of the University Museum of Bergen", "Mechanism of Action of Stinging Nettles", "U.K. Standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria", "Home remedies: dock leaves for nettle stings", "The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Æsop For Children, by Æsop", "Grasping the nettle: an empirical enquiry", "The cist on Whitehorse Hill - Current Archaeology", "Gouda Cheese with Stinging Nettles: Cooking Terms", World Stinging Nettle Eating Championship attracts record crowd, "Homebrew from the hedgerow: nettle beer", "Galactagogue herbs: a qualitative study and review", "Ecuador's indigenous justice system on trial", "Nettle as a distinct Bronze-Age textile plant", "Second skin: why wearing nettles is the next big thing", "10 Jahre anbautechnische Versuche zu Fasernesseln (Urtica dioica L.) in Thüringen", "Production and processing of organically grown fiber nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and its potential use in the natural textile industry: A review", "USDA National Nutrient Database: raw carrot", "Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality", "Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, Antioxidant Stability and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Nettle (Urtica dioica. The taxonomy of Urtica species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of systematic names for these plants. [43] Urtication, or flogging with nettles is the process of deliberately applying stinging nettles to the skin to provoke inflammation. Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is found throughout Eurasia, North America, and northern Africa, and has been introduced to parts of South America. [74], "Stinging nettle" redirects here. stinging nettle. Originally native to Europe, much of temperate Asia and western North Africa,[1] it is now found worldwide, including New Zealand[2] and North America. The competition dates back to 1986, when two neighbouring farmers attempted to settle a dispute about which had the worst infestation of nettles. However, at least six clear subspecies of U. dioica are described, some formerly classified as separate species: Other species' names formerly accepted as distinct by some authors but now regarded as synonyms of one or other subspecies include U. breweri, U. californica, U. cardiophylla, U. lyalli, U. major, U. procera, U. serra, U. strigosissima, U. trachycarpa, and U. viridis. dioica) is introduced. [37][38] Similarly, in Greece the tender leaves are often used, after simmering, as a filling for hortopita, which is similar to spanakopita, but with wild greens rather than spinach for filling. [53], Carotenoids can be found primarily in the leaves, where different forms of lutein, xanthophyll and carotene are present (Table 2). [3][4] The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation upon contact ("contact urticaria", a form of contact dermatitis). The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs, and in most subspecies, also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes or spicules), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that can inject several chemicals causing a painful sting or paresthesia, giving the species its common names: stinging nettle, burn nettle, burn weed, or burn hazel.[3][5][4]. Three species of stinging nettles grow in the American southwest: Urtica dioica (subspecies, Urtica dioica gracilis), Urtica gracilenta and Urtica urens. There is a common idea in Great Britain that the nettle was introduced by the Romans. This is a bit of a misnomer considering that both sexes of flowers for our subspecies generally grow on the same plant. Stinging hairs, or trichomes, grow on stems and leaves. Some claim that the term "nettle" refers to the plant’s needle-like sting, while others trace the word’s origin to the plant’s use for weaving, hence the term "nettle" or "net-plant." The taxonomy of Urtica species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of systematic names for these plants. However, at least six clear subspecies of U. dioica are described, some formerly classified as separate species: Stinging nettle, or urtica dioica, is a perennial flowering plant that has been used medicinally for ages, dating back as far as Ancient Greece. If you see a group of such plants, look for those noxious bristly hairs along the stems of the plants and on the undersides of their leaves. It is possible that the sash was traded from mainland Europe, but perhaps more probable that it was locally made. Due to the variable fibre content, the fibre yields vary between 0.2 and 7 dt / ha, but the yields are normally in the range between 2 and 4 dt / ha. The plant usually grows between two to four feet high and blooms from June to September. [32] After the stinging nettle enters its flowering and seed-setting stages, the leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths, which can irritate the urinary tract. [51], Nettles may be used as a dye-stuff, producing yellow from the roots, or yellowish green from the leaves. Primarily called stinging nettle or nettle, Urtica dioica is a member of the family Urticaceae and is native to Europe and Eurasia. In reality, Native American people knew perfectly well how to avoid being stung by nettle plants and in fact, how to eat them safely in salads (by boiling the … It has been introduced to many other parts of the world. [44], In indigenous justice systems in Ecuador, urtication was used as punishment for severe crimes in 2010. [50] Fibre varieties are normally cloning varieties and therefore planted from vegetative propagated plantlets. Standard deviations are given in brackets. Histamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine are the primary irritating chemicals. Tiny greenish flowers grow in dense drooping clusters at the leaf axils (where the leaf arises from the stem). The sentenced perpetrator of a crime was flogged with stinging nettle, in public, naked, whilst being showered with freezing cold water. The two annual species grow from a taproot and are erect. Stinging Nettle also known as Urtica dioica is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant reaching heights of seven feet tall when placed in sunny damp soil (2). [57][58][59] Feeding as little as 6.25 g dry nettle per kg feed is as effective as the synthetic pigments to colour the egg yolk. [36], Nettles are used in Albania as part of the dough filling for the börek. The root and above ground parts are used as medicine. The spell could be broken only if the princess made each brother a coat from nettles and didn’t utter a word the whole time she was doing it. Nettle folktales also remind the listeners of man’s foolish decision to label the plant as a weed. Stinging nettles most often appear in Native American legends as comic relief, with the bumbling arrogance of a trickster character (or the gullible stupidity of one of his victims) ending in an ignominious tumble into the nettles. [67] Regular and persistent tilling will greatly reduce its numbers, and the use of herbicides such as 2,4-D and glyphosate are effective control measures. [74], Dioica is derived from Greek, meaning 'of two houses' (having separate staminate and pistillate plants; dioecious). The skin surrounding the hives may be red. European Stinging Nettle . Cold objects or water reactivate the symptoms. The leaves and young stems of this herbaceous plant are fitted with stinging hairs tipped with formic acid and other irritants. Leaves of all species are opposite, toothed, up to two inches long, and generally oval, elliptic or narrowly heart shaped. 1 part dried stinging nettle leaves (see below for how to obtain) 1 part dried rose hips with seeds removed 1 part dried mint leaves honey (optional) PREPARATION. [45], Nettle stems contain a bast fibre that has been traditionally used for the same purposes as linen and is produced by a similar retting process. As a result, many people are introduced to it in an abrupt and often uncomfortable way. In the German language, the idiom sich in die Nesseln setzen, or to sit in nettles, means to get into trouble. The leaves have distinctly serrated edges, with each leaf margin looking like a row of pointed teeth. [5][6] The plant has a long history of use as a source for traditional medicine, food, tea, and textile raw material in ancient societies such as the Saxons. A stew or soup containing a handful of dried nettle can provide hair follicles with nutrients such as potassium, iron, vitamin A and vitamins C from the inside. Shakespeare's Hotspur urges that "out of this nettle, danger, we pluck this flower, safety" (Henry IV, part 1, Act II Scene 3). Native Americans helped themselves stay awake at night with a quick flagellation or two. Stinging nettle’s leaves and root provide a wide variety of nutrients, … Other subspecies of U. dioica are dioecious, however. L) Powder or Essential Oil", "Compost Teas vs Other Teas and Extracts", "Potential for Greenhouse Aeroponic Cultivation of Urtica Dioica", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urtica_dioica&oldid=991655747, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with failed verification from March 2015, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Growing seedlings: For this technique pre-germinated seeds are sown between mid-/end-February and beginning of April and grown in, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 04:32. It is less widespread in southern Europe and north Africa, where it is restricted by its need for moist soil, but is still common. [47] German Army uniforms were almost all made from nettle during World War I due to a potential shortage of cotton. [3] It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow, as are the roots. Sign up below or read more about the DesertUSA newsletter here. [42], As Old English stiðe, nettle is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in 10th century traditional medicine. The nettle has sharp hairs on its leaves. Minerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, Si, S, Cl) and trace elements (Ti, 80 ppm,[55] Mn, Cu, Fe) contents depend mostly on the soil and the season. Plants are generally scattered and overlooked until brushed against. Stinging nettle is a plant. [15], Urtica dioica produces its inflammatory effect on skin (stinging, burning sensation often called "contact urticaria") both by impaling the skin via spicules – causing mechanical irritation – and by biochemical irritants, such as histamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, among other chemicals. Description: Although they can reach greater heights, stinging nettles usually grow to about three to four feet tall. It spreads from rhizomes, and it can be either erect or sprawling. The cist dated from between 1730 and 1600 BC. The North American Deserts The presence of nettles may indicate the site of a long-abandoned building, and can also indicate soil fertility. gracilis) and European (Urtica dioica ssp. [73], Urtica is derived from a Latin word meaning 'sting'. [34] Nettle soup is a common use of the plant, particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe. Their deep, earthy flavor always reminds me of rich soil, damp from winter and ready to burst forth with new plants now that spring is here. dioica).Both are common, especially in disturbed areas. Table 2: Carotenoid concentration of leaves of U. dioica (μg/ g dry weight). 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