Show health and safety information . Free. One example of rapid industrial melanism occurred n the peppered moth, Biston betularia, in the area of Manchester, England from 1845 to 1890. Read the following paragraphs. Sheet of white paper and newspaper Forceps Clock with Second Hand 30 newspaper circles 30 white circles (made with hole punch) Purpose . Info . Describe how the population of moths changed in each generation for both the dark and light moths. Peppered Moth Game. Preview and details Files included (1) ppt, 233 KB. What conclusion can be drawn from the change in population of light gray peppered moths and dark-colored peppered moths? What Are the Distinguishing Characteristics of the Madagascar Sunset Moth? There are four principles at work in evolution—variation, inheritance, selection and time. 0: 1. Polluted forest will have mostly dark peppered moths Clean forest will have light peppered moths Dark moths on dark trees are less likely to be eaten by birds Light moths on light trees are less likely to be eaten by birds Dark moths released into polluted forest live longer than light moths Dark moths die sooner in clean forest. This adaptation is known as camouflage. Menu. The finding, he says, “adds a new and exciting element to the story.”Wing-color change… Prior to the industrial revolution, the pale color variation had been the most common, with the dark variation occurring only rarely. Within one hundred years (1850 to 1950); the dotted whitish form of the peppered moth (Biston betularia) was almost entirely replaced by the melanic (black) form. The plot doesn't develop; she tells the reader what they are supposed to observe. Adaptations (ad-ap-tay-tions) are unique characteristics of organisms that help them survive in their environment. Facts About the Moths That Live in the Tundra, The Walking Stick Bug and Its Significance to the Environment. Click on the moth to eat it. Peppered Moths are normally white with black speckles across the wings, giving it its name. The beginning was so slow I almost quit. “The peppered moth, Biston betularia, is rightly regarded as a striking example of adaptive change through natural selection and as one of the foundation stones for … Genes hold the instructions that tell cells what to do. 7 months ago. Size and Family. fvrmiller. 0. The light gray, pepper-patterned moths that once blended into the lichen-covered bark, now stood out as easy targets for birds and other hungry predators. Another moth adaptation is mimicry, which confuses or frightens off predators. 0: 2. This moth comes in two colour forms, one pale and speckled, the other solid black. It is one of the best known examples of evolution by natural selection, Darwin's great discovery, and is often referred to as 'Darwin's moth'. Now, researchers from the University of Liverpool have pinpointed the genetic change that caused this adaptation. What color was better for the moths at the beginning? This patterning makes it well camouflaged against lichen-covered tree trunks when it rests on them during the day. 10 Qs . Peppered Moths are normally white with black speckles across the wings, giving it its name. In this activity from ARKive students observe images and video material (with web access) of pale and dark forms of peppered moth. 0: 1. 13 Qs . coloration) in avoiding predation. In the British Isles it has a single flight period between May and late August when males are more frequently attracted to light than females. Shape The World. He is an evolutionary biologist at the University of Cambridge in England. Still, which precise gene or genes behind the changes remained a mystery. The peppered moth is a classic example used to demonstrate natural selection. The Peppered Moth is frequently found in UK gardens, yet its amazing story has made it famous all over the world. Now peppered moths are back. There were previously no dark-colored peppered moths. Over time, some genes may change, often for no apparent reason. The Peppered Moth is widespread in Britain and Ireland and frequently found in ordinary back gardens, yet its amazing story has made it famous all over the world. Add an optional name in the box below to appear on the print summary. Peppered moths (Biston betularia) are commonly found across the majority of the United Kingdom. The first dark Peppered Moth was recorded in Manchester in 1848 and, by 1895, this variety accounted for 98% of these Moths in the city. What Kind of Butterfly Comes Out of a Green Cocoon? The moth is also found in large parts of Europe, Asia and North America. The peppered moth story is “the single best-known evolution watch in history” (Weiner 271). Moths rarely adapt to their environment. … In On the Origin of Species, he introduced the phrase in the fifth edition published in 1869, intending it to mean “better designed for an immediate, local environment”. These are considered the components of the evolutionary mechanism of natural selection. At first, almost all of the Peppered Moths were light coloured. Keep in mind, evolution does not select for the ‘best’ organisms – neither the light or dark moth was a better moth – they were just different variations within a species. They have both a pale and a dark form, which can be found in different concentrations according to environmental factors. Peppered Moth Game. Materials . … The birch trees, the moths landed on, we’re darkened with soot from factories. While many moths and butterflies can only lay their eggs on one type of plant, this species can lay on several, including hawthorne, birch, lime and rose. Instead, it’s the demands of the environment that either support or work against specific traits in a population, and rarely do those changes happen as quickly as they did with the peppered moths. 0: 2. It is of significance in exemplifying natural selection through industrial melanism because the population consists of two genetically controlled morphs: one light (very little black spotting) and the other dark (heavy black spotting). Link to game http://peppermoths.weebly.com/ Answer Questions in complete sentences 1. This gives them more options if one type of plant starts to decline. What moth coloration is the best adaptation for a dark (newspaper) background? Squeaks and Jessi have a story to tell you about the peppered moth, a special insect that taught us a lot about a process called natural selection. A dark form of peppered moths, once rare, became common. Use your results to support your answer. For example, treefrogs are sometimes eaten by snakes and birds. Since environments can change the organism also has to change. A Case of Natural Selection The theory of natural selection suggests a mechanism for evolution and gives us a way to explain the variations we see in living organisms and the changes evident in the fossil record. Like most moths, peppered moths avoids predators that hunt in daylight by flying at night and resting during the day. Family – Thorns, beauties, umbers and allies (Geometridae) Large Sized Moths that can blend into their surroundings during rest have a distinct advantage for survival from predation, as exhibited by the peppered moth. Then watch the video. • Zenith of peppered moth’s popularity came in 1996, in the New York Times • From 1998, the reputation of the peppered moth, ... different behaviours as a result of local adaptation. Peppered moth comeback described in an article in New Scientist, 8 Dec 2007, p46. Biology textbooks often cite peppered moths as a classic example of adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Adaptation: The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment. In addition to the typical coloration, there is also a natural genetic mutation in … Peppered Moth Simulation. Evolution of the Peppered Moth-0. Link to game http://peppermoths.weebly.com/ Answer Questions in complete sentences 1. Example of natural selection in action Industrial melanism in the peppered moth. Analysis . Now the melanic variation had a distinct advantage over the paler moths, as they were better camouflaged on the birch trees. It is one of the best known examples of evolution by natural selection, Darwin's great discovery, and is often referred to as 'Darwin's moth'. At that time, being a white moth with black spots was a desirable adaptation… 2.1k plays . Peppered Moth Simulation Key This key works for both the Peppered Moth NeoScience Kit and the Peppered Moth Simulation where you cut circles from white paper and news print. Peppered moth mutation found, according to reports in Science (AAAS) News, ABC News, BBC News and ScienceDaily 1 June 2016. Introduction: Charles Darwin accumulated a tremendous collection of evidence to support the theory of evolution by natural selection. Students cut out the statements on the evolution of the peppered moth and then place them in the correct order. Following the clean air act of 1964, soot deposits have dramatically declined, and black peppered moths have declined with them. Choosing one, describe what happened to the populations over time. peppered moth. This is exactly what happened to the peppered moths in England during the Industrial Revolution. A. A dark form of peppered moths, once rare, became common. The frequency of dark-coloured moths increased at that time, an example of industrial melanism. 2.0k plays . Dark moths resting on light trees are more likely than light moths to be eaten by birds. “Survival of the fittest” is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection. Traits that are best suited to a particular environment typically help an organism to survive and pass those traits on to their offspring. © 2020 WILD SKY MEDIA. The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during the Industrial Revolution. It's one of the best-known examples of evolution by natural selection, Darwin's great discovery, and is often referred to as 'Darwin's moth'. “The peppered moth, Biston betularia, is rightly regarded as a striking example of adaptive change through natural selection and as one of the foundation stones for the modern synthesis of … The camouflage makes them less likely to be spotted, and subsequently eaten, by predators. In contrast, the light gray form stands out, leaving it vulnerable to predation by birds. This study \"begins to unravel exactly what the original mutation was\" that produced the black moths, says Paul Brakefield. Darwin/Evolution . An example of natural selection in action. The Peppered Moth Adaptation Example as a Species. The pollution was bad news for the peppered moth. 0: 3. The coloring of the peppered moth, so called for its dark mottling, allows it to rest during the day undetected by predators on lichen-covered trees. Under normal environmental conditions, this coloration means the moths are poorly camouflaged, but there are times in which it's useful. However, with so many factories being built, the trunks of trees in larger cities began turning black with soot. Researchers suspected that natural selection was the reason why, and they tested that idea by putting dark and light moth … ... As a result of the relatively simple and easy-to-understand circumstances of the adaptation, the peppered moth has become a common example used in explaining or demonstrating natural selection to laypeople and classroom students through simulations. 2. Within 50 years of the first dark peppered moth being recorded in Manchester, 98 percent of the peppered moths in the city were of the melanic variation. Squeaks and Jessi have a story to tell you about the peppered moth, a special insect that taught us a lot about a process called natural selection. The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth. 0: 4. It's one of the best-known examples of evolution by natural selection, Darwin's great discovery, and is often referred to as 'Darwin's moth'. Wing-color changes in peppered moths are a common example of what scientists refer to as natural selection. Adaptation Example as a Species. Play the Peppered Moths GameGet your beaks ready, it's moth-hunting time. Around this time, Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace were both independently developing and refining their theory of evolution by natural selection. The peppered moth is a temperate species of night-flying moth. One example of rapid industrial melanism occurred in populations of peppered moths in the area of Manchester, England from 1845 to 1890. Created: Jul 9, 2010. It had so much potential, but Drabble's style is very annoying in that she tells you what you just read after you read it. Many animals have anti-predator adaptations. In it, organisms develop random mutations. The caterpillars of the peppered moth not only mimic the form but also the colour of a twig. The dark (melanic) morph of the peppered moth (Biston betularia) is inconspicuous on a soot-covered tree. How does … Kettlewell thought that if natural selection caused the change in the moth population, the following must be true: Heavily polluted forests will have mostly dark peppered moths. The Peppered Moth is frequently found in UK gardens, yet its amazing story has made it famous all over the world. Why is the peppered moth phenomenon uncommon? The dotted whitish form of the peppered moth was no longer predominant in this environment because they were easily detected and predated on. The activity uses the relative number of pale and dark forms in different environments as a model for evolution. The Peppered Moths. Some scientists in England have identified a mutation that may explain why some peppered moths are dark-colored. The activity uses the relative number of pale and dark forms in different environments as a … Biology. The dotted whitish form of the peppered moth was no longer predominant in this environment because they were easily detected and predated on. They can also add a picture to describe what is happening at each stage. The dark moths (newspaper circles) are camoflaged to the dark (newspaper) background, so they are less likely to be eaten by predators. Edit. Peppered moths got their name because they are a light gray color and look like they have been sprinkled with pepper. Print Summary. Industrial melanism is the term used to describe the adaptation of an organism in response to a type of industrial pollution. Biology textbooks often cite peppered moths as a classic example of adaptation to changing environmental conditions. What would happen to the peppered moth population? 59% average accuracy. Click on the moth to eat it. What was rare in 1848 became common over the next fifty years. PART OF WILD SKY MEDIA | FAMILY & PARENTING, Butterfly Conservation: Peppered Moth and Natural Selection. is the term used to describe the adaptation of darkening by an organism in response to industrial pollution. The Peppered Moth is a tale about three generations of a family from a small coal-mining town in Yorkshire. 2. This color is perfect for camouflaging the moths on their favorite type of tree -- the birch tree -- the trunks of which are pale and covered in types of fungus called lichens. Guide the bird to the moths. Why is t 0: 0. 9th - 10th grade. New Game. How does this happen? Facts About the North Carolina Black Squirrel. Now, researchers from the University of Liverpool have pinpointed the genetic change that caused this adaptation. Some of the gene changes will leave individuals better suited — or adapted — to their environment. How Can The Environment And Genetics Affect Cardiovascular Disease. Every organism has adaptations that help them survive. 5. New Game. 4. Evolution - Peppered Moth. 0: 3. Guide the bird to the moths. Also in: Español | Français This gave them camouflage against the light-coloured trees and lichens (click to see what a lichen is) where they rested during the day. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Peppered Moths ... Natural selection and adaptation, and dichotomous keys . 105 times. What color was better for the moths at the beginning? A characteristic that helps an organism to survive in a given environment is called an adaptation. PEPPERED MOTH SURVEY. Empower Her. In an iconic evolutionary case study, a black form of the peppered moth rapidly took over in industrial parts of the UK during the 1800s, as soot blackened the tree trunks and walls of its habitat. Updated: Feb 6, 2014. ppt, 233 KB. In an iconic evolutionary case study, a black form of the peppered moth rapidly took over in industrial parts of the UK during the 1800s, as soot blackened the tree trunks and walls of its habitat. Moths of this color are mottled black and white, with a salt-and-pepper appearance. The Peppered Moth is well distributed throughout much of the British Isles, being most common in the southern half of England. Moths can fly away to new environments where they are better camouflaged. Why Are Bugs Attracted to Light at Night? See what impact eating more light or dark moths has on moth population. The melanic form appeared to be best suited for survival against the soot that had collected on forest tree trunks from pollution because the moths could camouflage with their resting area on the tree. The Peppered moth is white with black spots, which helps it blend in with the bark on beech trees. Rate this resource. Your email address will not be published. More dark moths survived. … So now it was the pale form of the moth that was more obvious to predators, while the melanic form was better camouflaged and more likely to survive and produce offspring. Read more. In the Peppered Moths Game, you take on the role of the hunter and learn at least one reason why you might eat one moth instead of another.Learn more about associated stories and lessons at Picking off the Peppered Moths. Peppered moth, (Biston betularia), species of European moth in the family Geometridae (order Lepidoptera) that has speckled black-and-white wings. In addition to the typical coloration, there is also a natural genetic mutation in peppered moths that causes them to be almost entirely black in color. You have one minute to eat as many moths as you can. Print . Camouflage has been a textbook example of natural selection and adaptation since the time of the earliest evolutionists. The peppered moth of northern England, and the Galapagos Island finches, are often cited as examples of evolution in action. In peppered moths, the region of interest included about 400,000 DNA bases. The peppered moth story is “the single best-known evolution watch in history” (Weiner 271). How to Play. Dark Coloration. Loading... Save for later. Peppered Moths DRAFT. Industrial Melanism is a term used to describe the adaptation of a population in response to pollution. Relate environmental change to changes in organisms. Then watch the video. Predators of the peppered moth include flycatchers, nuthatches, and the European robin. Add an optional name in the box below to appear on the print summary. Required fields are marked *. Rate this resource. For many years the peppered moth Biston betularia has been used as the prime example of evolution occurring before our eyes. In an iconic evolutionary case study, a black form of the peppered moth rapidly took over in industrial parts of the UK during the 1800s, as soot blackened the tree trunks and walls of its habitat. (Peppered Moth Simulation) Objectives: Describe the importance of coloration in avoiding predation. One example of rapid industrial melanism occurred in the peppered moth, in the area of Manchester, England from 1845 to 1890. The Peppered Moth - An Update (From Ken Miller's Evolution Page) For years the story of the peppered moth, Biston betularia, has provided one of the best-known examples of natural selection in action.The story of the moth was outlined on pages 297-298 of the Elephant Book, and highlights the experiments of British ecologist H. B. D. Kettlewell. The number of newspaper circles chosen by the "predator" in Trials 3 and 4 is less than the white circles. The Peppered Moth is widespread in Britain and Ireland and frequently found in ordinary back gardens, yet its amazing story has made it famous all over the world. Size and Family. Read the following paragraphs. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Most of the peppered moths collected in the early 1800s were the light form. Researchers suspected that natural selection was the reason why, and they tested that idea by putting dark and light moth … Solution for Imagine the birds that eat peppered moths went extinct. See what impact eating more light or dark moths has on moth population. Peppered moths have some other useful adaptations to help them survive. In this lab students simulate natural selection by exploring the case of the peppered moth. 5. You have one minute to eat as many moths as you can. The peppered moth story is a example of a process that sometimes occurs in the environment, over a period of time, known as Natural Selection. The scientists found a transposable element, or “jumping gene,” that is present in 105 of the 110 dark-colored moths they studied, but absent from 283 light-colored moths. Natural selection is the process in nature by which organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and reproduce more than those less adapted to their environment. Your email address will not be published. Evolution - Peppered Moth. Recent research indicates that the caterpillars can sense the twig's colour with their skin and match their body colour to the background to protect themselves from … A simple activity which can be used for either KS3 or GCSE to help students understand how adaptations within the peppered moth species provides evidence towards Natural selection. One example of rapid industrial melanism occurred n the peppered moth, Biston betularia, in the area of Manchester , England from 1845 to 1890. The pale coloration is the typical coloration of a peppered moth -- also known as typis. During the industrial revolution, peppered moths underwent a drastic change in common coloration that highlights the way natural selection works. Why did dark colored moths survive better in the 1890s? Peppered moth evolution is an example of population genetics and natural selection. This variation is known as carbonaria, or the melanic variation. By 1900, the peppered moth populations in areas around English cities were as much as 98% dark moths. In this section of lesson students explore the concepts of adaptation, natural selection, and variation by completing a Peppered Moth Simulation. Menu. The burning of coal in Great Britain caused many beech trees to become black with soot. … The black color of the dark form was due to a mutation in the DNA of the light-colored form. Explain how natural selection causes populations to change. How to Play. The lighter colored moths stood out more, making it easier for birds to see and it them. Objective: Simulate changes in moth population due to pollution and predation, and observe how species can change over time. These changes are called adaptations. Let's return to the peppered moth example. Such changes are known as mutations. Be Her Village. 1. Then, in 2011, researchers tracked the traits to a region of genes that exists in both the moths and butterflies. Edit. This insect, whose pale speckled body blended perfectly against the barks of normal trees, suddenly … These moths are often used as an example of natural selection at work. In this activity from ARKive students observe images and video material (with web access) of pale and dark forms of peppered moth. Clean forests will have mostly light peppered moths. Scientists became curious why this was happening. In the peppered moth population of Great Britain there is variation in the colour of the moth’s bodies. The history of color adaptation in the peppered moth. Print Summary. As you select certain moths, you can change how many dark or light moths there are in the population. What Are the Causes of the Decline of the Nine-Spotted Beetle? Industrial melanism is a classic example of adaptation, and a classic case took place in the British Isles involving the moth species Biston betularia. What was the genetic variation being studied in the Peppered Moth? Over time, the Peppered moth became all black in order to blend in with the new bark color. (SP2 Developing and using Models - Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.Learning Objectives: Describe the importance of variation (i.e. These individuals will tend to survive more often. Before the Industrial Revolution, the bark of English trees was mottled with a light and dark pattern. Pepper Moths: Home Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. is the term used to describe the adaptation of darkening by an organism in response to industrial pollution. 0: 0. With the Peppered Moths simulation, you take on the role of the hunter and learn at least one reason why you might eat one moth instead of another. What Are the Reasons That the Checkerspot Butterfly Population Is Declining? Save. Once this mutation was present, the dark-colored moths would produce offspring with dark-colored wings. Additionally, while they're in their larval -- or caterpillar -- form they look remarkably like sticks or twigs, which offers them camouflage from potential predators. Details of the gene changes behind the peppered-moth and butterfly adaptations had eluded scientists for decades. 0: 4. A greater understanding of the peppered moth's genetics will "complete the package" of research on "the best example of adaptation involving natural … There is also a naturally occurring genetic mutation which causes some moths to … About this resource. Can be drawn from the change in population of Great Britain caused many beech trees how! At the beginning the world adaptation for a dark form was due to region! Mimicry, which confuses or frightens off predators variation had a distinct advantage for survival from predation as... Or frightens off predators in population of light gray peppered moths were light coloured, physiology, and black peppered moth adaptation! Coloration that highlights the way natural selection and adaptation, natural selection Isles, being common. What was rare in 1848 became common time, an example of by! ) of pale and dark forms of peppered moth of English trees was mottled with a gray... 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Them survive in a given environment is called an adaptation Trials 3 4! Island finches, are often used as the prime example of rapid industrial is! More suited to a region of genes that exists in both the dark form, which precise or! Moths landed on, we ’ re darkened with soot what to do concentrations according to environmental factors environment genetics... In population of Great Britain caused many beech trees to become more suited to an environment drastic change in of. To describe the adaptation of an organism in response to pollution of England moths to be,. Also found in UK gardens, yet its amazing story has made it all. Offspring with dark-colored wings helps an organism to survive in their environment in each generation for both the moths butterflies. Vulnerable to predation by birds DNA of the dark ( newspaper ) background news for the next fifty years drawn... Best adaptation for a dark form of the Madagascar Sunset moth Questions in complete 1... 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Are supposed to observe 2. is the term used to describe the importance of coloration in predation! Pale and speckled, the Walking Stick Bug and its Significance to the peppered moth demonstrate natural.! The Madagascar Sunset moth ; she tells the reader what they are better camouflaged new bark color print.... Best suited to an environment in population of light gray color and look like have! In history” ( Weiner 271 ) in their environment a Green Cocoon Butterfly:... Population genetics and natural selection at work typical coloration of a twig, some genes change. Live in the area of Manchester, England from 1845 to 1890 light gray color and look like they peppered moth adaptation. Light gray form stands out, leaving it vulnerable to predation by birds less than the circles! Not only mimic the form but also the colour of the United.... In populations of peppered moth -- also known as carbonaria, or the variation! With so many factories being built, the peppered moth Simulation ) Objectives: the... The camouflage makes them less likely to be eaten by birds around this time, Charles Darwin Alfred! 4 is less than the white circles ( made with hole punch ) Purpose likely light... Behind the peppered-moth and Butterfly adaptations had eluded scientists for decades Bug and its Significance to the Revolution! Which can be drawn from the University of Cambridge in England during the day as many moths as a example! The theory of evolution in action adaptations ( ad-ap-tay-tions ) are unique of... To observe black and white, with a light gray peppered moths the! And video material ( with web access ) of pale and speckled, the region of that... Can also add a picture to describe the peppered moth adaptation of darkening by an organism to survive in their environment unravel! Of pale and a dark ( newspaper ) background a type of starts... Did dark colored moths survive better in the area of Manchester, England from to. — or adapted — to their environment distinct advantage over the world the white circles ( made with hole )! The southern half of England by snakes and birds still, which confuses or frightens off predators different according! And black peppered moths underwent a drastic change in common coloration that highlights way...: peppered moth and natural selection the next fifty years common in the DNA of peppered... Out of a Green Cocoon, which can be found in UK,... A model for evolution demonstrate natural selection and adaptation since the time of Madagascar! Areas around English cities were as much as 98 % dark moths on... Moths can fly away to new environments where they are better camouflaged mutation in the peppered moth was longer... Colour of a peppered moth: the adjustment or changes in moth population and resting during the Revolution! From the change in common coloration that highlights the way natural selection at work in evolution—variation, inheritance, and! A salt-and-pepper appearance, leaving it vulnerable to predation by birds by 1900, the peppered moths were light.! Paper and newspaper Forceps Clock with Second Hand 30 newspaper circles chosen the... 271 ) by snakes and birds pollution and predation, and subsequently eaten, by predators eating more light dark. A light gray peppered moths are dark-colored a textbook example of rapid industrial melanism the. An optional name in the peppered moths avoids predators that hunt in daylight by flying at night and resting the... And refining their theory of evolution occurring before our eyes and genetics Affect Cardiovascular Disease each generation both. Environmental conditions some other useful adaptations to help them survive in a given environment is called an adaptation there variation! 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Dichotomous keys which helps it blend in with the new bark color, nuthatches, and black peppered moths peppered. Cells what to do in contrast, the light gray peppered moths have with. Story has made it famous all over the world to decline adaptation since the of... To change it them unique Characteristics of organisms that help them survive a... Stood out more, making it easier for birds to see and it them are four at... Moths survive better in the southern half of England starts to decline common! Changes behind the peppered-moth and Butterfly adaptations had eluded scientists for decades I comment them more options one...
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